PhD, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik
Research interests: extragalactical astronomy, peculiar galaxies, redshift study, quasars (QSO), theory of aether according Lomonosov - LeSage.
Halton C. Arp is a world-wide known scientist, professional astronomer who, earlier in his career, was Edwin Hubble's assistant. He has earned the Helen B.Warner prize, the Newcomb Cleveland award and the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Scientist Award. For years he worked at the Mt. Palomar and Mt. Wilson observatories. While there, he developed his well known catalog of "Peculiar Galaxies" that are misshapen or irregular in appearance. Arp discovered, by taking photographs through the big telescopes, that many pairs of quasars ("quasi-stellar objects") which have extremely high redshift z values (and are therefore thought to be receding from us very rapidly - and thus must be located at a great distance from us) are physically associated with galaxies that have low redshift and are known to be relatively close by. Arp has photographs of many pairs of high redshift quasars that are symmetrically located on either side of what he suggests are their parent, low redshift galaxies. These pairings occur much more often than the probabilities of random placement would allow. Mainstream astrophysicists try to explain away Arp's observations of connected galaxies and quasars as being "illusions" or "coincidences of apparent location". But, the large number of physically associated quasars and low red shift galaxies that he has photographed and cataloged defies that evasion. It simply happens too often Because of Arp's photos, the assumption that high red shift objects have to be very far away - on which the "Big Bang" theory and all of "accepted cosmology" is based - is proven to be wrong! The Big Bang theory is therefore falsified.
M31 and Local Group QSO's. - (with Carosati D. Armenzano Astronomical Observatory, 06081 Assisi(PG), Italy), arXiv:0706.3154, received. 21 June 2007 Last updated. 21 June 2007.
Abstract - Previous analyses have shown companion galaxies aligned along the minor axis of M31. The alignment includes some galaxies of higher redshift than conventionally accepted for Local Group members. Here we look at the distribution of all high redshift objects listed in a 10 x 10 deg. area around M31. We find not only galaxies of higher redshift but also quasars along the minor axis of this brightest Local Group galaxy, Some are an unusual class of low z, quasar-galaxy. Previously observers had noted radio sources aligned along the minor axis of M31. The ejection directions of quasars from active galaxy nuclei is also along the minor axis within a cone of about 20 deg. opening angle. It is shown here that the quasar-like and higher redshift objects associated with M31 are relatively concentrated along this axis. M33 also falls closely along the minor axis of M31 and the famous 3C48 and similar redshift galaxy/quasars are seen along a line coming from this Local Group companion of M31. What appears to be dusty nebulosity has also been shown to exist along this extended line in the sky.
A concentration of quasars around the jet galaxy NGC1097 - (with D. Carosati), 2007
Abstract - A quasar search in the region of the active galaxy NGC 1097 yielded 31 quasars in 1984. After completion of the 2dF survey in 2004 the number of catalogued quasars just within 1 degree of the galaxy increased to 142. About 38 $pm$ 10 of these are in excess of average background values. The evidence in 1984 is confirmed here by an increasing density of quasars as one approaches NGC 1097. Quasars within 1 degree differ from the background by being significantly brighter. There also appear two elliptical rings or arcs of quasars at r 20'and 40'.
Quasars, Gamma Ray Bursters and BL Lacertids , 2006.
Abstract - New observations suggest that high redshift quasars can be turned into Gamma Ray Bursters and BL Lacertids by interaction with absorbing clouds in their vicinity.
Quasars and Galaxy Clusters Paired Across NGC 4410 - (with E. M. Burbidge and D. Carosati), 2006.
Abstract - The aim is to investigate the region of the sky around NGC4410/Mrk1325 for objects which are physically associated with this active, double nucleus galaxy. We use archived data to study the placement, brightness, X-ray properties and redshifts of objects within 60' of the bright, central galaxy. It is found that pairs of quasars are aligned across NGC 4410 which, if ejected from it, have equal and opposite ejection velocities and fall very close to the quantized Karlsson redshift peaks for quasars. X-ray sources and Abell galaxy clusters at higher redshifts appear elongated along directions away from NGC4410.
Ultraluminous X-ray Sources, High Redshift QSOs and Active Galaxies - (with G. Burbidge, E. M. Burbidge and W. M. Napier)
Abstract - It is shown that all of the 32 point X-ray sources which lie within about 10' of the centre of nearby galaxies, and which have so far been optically identified are high redshift objects - AGN or QSOs. Thus the surface density of these QSOs p similar or equal to 0.1 per square arc minute. Some of them were originally discovered as X-ray sources and classified as ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), nearly all of which lie near the centers of active galaxies. We demonstrate that this concentration around galactic nuclei is of high statistical significance: the probabiliy that p that they are accidental lies in the range one in a thousand to one in ten thousand, and apparently this excess cannot be accounted for by microlensing.
The double radio source 3C343.1: A galaxy-QSO pair with very different redshifts
(with E. M. Burbidge, G. Burbidge)
The strong radio source 3C343.1 consists of a galaxy and a QSO separated by no more than about 0.25". The chance of this being an accidental superposition is conservatively ~1x10-8. The z=0.344 galaxy is connected to the z=0.750 QSO by a radio bridge. The numerical relation between the two redshifts is that predicted from previous associations. This pair is an extreme example of many similar physical associations of QSOs and galaxies with very different redshifts.
Faint Quasars Give Conclusive Evidence for Non-Velocity Redshifts
In the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, 243 redshifts of objects fainter than 25.5 mag. were observed. Remarkably, two of them turned out to be very high redshift at z = 4.800 and z = 4.882. Even more remarkably these two fell only 3 and 1.5 arcsec on either side of an emisssion line galaxy of z = .733.
Astronomy By Press Release - News From A Black Hole
Since the force of gravity varies as the square of the inverse distance between objects why not make the ultimate extrapolation and let the distance go to zero? You get a LOT of density. Maybe it goes BOOM! But wait a minute, maybe it goes in the opposite direction and goes MOOB! Whatever. Most astronomers decided anyway that this was the only source that could explain the observed jets and explosions in galaxies.
MA DPhil Oxf, FRS
Research Professor at the University of Essex
Spontaneous emission and noise in optical amplifiers and lasers; applications of quantum optics theory in information technology; forces exerted on dielectrics by laser light.
To attention of russian readers the magnificent article of professor of the Univercity of Essex Rodney Loudon is offered. Being the most knowing experimenter with huge research experience in the field of a nature of light, well-known scientist, he is really the man, who actually knows, what are light quanta. Every word of professor Rodney Loudon is verified as Parisian meter, therefore every young, and not young, scientific investigator can check up a correctness of his own research according to written by professor Loudon, being oriented on him as on a marine beacon.
Rodney LOUDON - "WHAT IS A PHOTON"
click for coming to his home page
Professor at the University of Nevada, USA
theory and practice of operated thermonuclear fusion, theoretical physics and nuclear physics, nuclear jet engines creation, aether theory, history of the science.
To attention of the readers the new articles of professor Winterberg, which reveal the errors of 20-th century physics and open the new horizons for researcher of nuclear physics are offered. Being the most experienced experimentor with huge experience of the studies in the field of revealing at superhigh pressure and temperature material properties study, world wide known scientist, inventor of the first nuclear jet engine and discoverer of electric charged nuclear fusion, professor Winterberg, in spite of his age (he got his Ph.D. degree under Nobel laureate Werner Heisenberg) continues to show to the young scientists an example of human and exploratory energy. His experience and knowledge are part of the treasure houses of the world science.
As an alternative to the fast ignition by petawatt lasers of small spherical deuterium-tritium (DT) targets compressed to thousand times solid density, the fast ignition by terawatt relativistic electron beams of thin cylindrical (or conical) DT targets, compressed to several ten times solid density and magnetized to 108 G through a high current discharge along the cylindrical axis of the targets, has been proposed. One problem of this approach is the guiding and focusing of the relativistic electron beam onto the target. It is proposed to transport the beam through a laser-triggered ionized channel in a low density background gas, or by letting it propagate along the surface of a thin wire crossing the diode gap, with the final focusing done by repulsive image currents in a conducting convergent cone. A second problem is the stopping of the electron beam in the target. This can hopefully be done by a combination of classical electron stopping power, the electrostatic two-stream instability and collisionless shocks in the presence of a strong perpendicular magnetic field.
In the dynamic interpretation of relatively by Lorentz and Poincare, Lorentz invariance results from real physical contractions of measuring rods and slower going clocks in absolute motion against an ether. As it was shown by Thirring, this different interpretation of special relativity can be extended to gener-al relativity, replacing the non-Euclidean with a Euclidean geometry, but where rods are contracted and clocks slowed down. In this dynamic interpretation of the special, (and by implication of the general) theory of relativity, there is a balance of forces which might be destroyed near the Planck energy, reached in approaching the event horizon. In gravitational collapse, the event horizon appears first at the center of the collapsing body, thereafter moving radially outward. If the balance of forces holding together ele-mentary particles is destroyed near the event horizon, all matter would be converted into zero rest mass particles which could explain the large energy release of gamma ray bursters.
The pressure in the center of the moon is estimated to be 50,000 atm at a temperature of a few 1000 K. Under these conditions a tunnel to the center of the moon seems possible, if dug by a sequence of nuclear explosions, crushing the rocks through which the tunnel shall pass. The crushed rocks reduce the pressure gradient in the tunnel wall and permit the removal of heat by liquid metals. The number of required nuclear explosions, estimated to be several thousand, can be substantially reduced by thermonuclear shape charges.
A value of the finestructure constant at the unification energy is obtained by a dimensional analysis of quantum gravity and fluid dynamics. The derivation assumes that the vacuum is a superfluid made up of positive and negative Planck mass particles obeying an exactly nonrelativistic law of motion with Lorentz invariance a low energy approximation. The dimensional analysis presented gives a value for the finestructure constant in good agreement with the empirical value I/a = 25.
In recent years there had been a growing interest in analog models of general relativity, with certain superfluid Solutions simulating black hole Solutions of Einstein's gravita-tional field equation. The quantization of a superfluid, composed of discrete particles (helium atoms), treated as a nonrelativistic many body problem does not lead to di-vergencies as the quantization of Einstein's field equations. Quantization of gravity is possible in string theory, but only if one introduces the daring hypothesis of higher di-mensions. But if the gravitational field is made up of discrete elements as superfluid helium is made up of helium atoms, then gravity can be quantized without difficulty in three space and one time dimension. Such a hypothesis, of course, implies that Lorentz invariance is a dynamic symmetry caused by real rod and clock deformations, as it was assumed in the pre-Einstein theory of relativity by Lorentz and Poincare, which required the existence of an aether. Making the hypothesis that this aether is a kind of super-fluid plasma made up of positive and negative Planck mass particles interacting with the Planck force over a Planck length, one obtains an analog of the Standard model, including gravity, which can be quantized as a nonrelativistic many body problem. In this model nonrelativistic vortex rings in three space dimensions and one time dimension sunulate the relativistic theory of closed strings in ten space-time dimensions. But because in the vortex lattice, one obtains a large dimensionless number conceivably advancing our understanding of the finestructure constant.
In a paper, published in 1997 by L. Corry, J. Renn, and J. Stachel, it is claimed that the recently dis-covered printer's proofs of Hilbert's 1915 paper on the general theory of relativity prove that Hilbert did not anticipate Einstein in arriving at the correct form of the gravitational field equations, as it is widely believed, but that only after having seen Einstein's final paper did Hilbert amend his published version with the correct form of the gravitational field equations. However, because a crucial part of the printer's proofs of Hilbert's paper had been cut off by someone, a fact not mentioned in the paper by Corry, Renn, and Stachel, the conclusion drawn by Corry, Renn, and Stachel is untenable and has no probative value. I rather will show that the cut off part of the proofs suggests a crude attempt by some unknown individual to falsify the historical record.
Modern physics consists of two paradigms and one myth: The theory of relativity, quantum theory and the Einstein myth. While both, the special theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, are confirmed by a very large body of experimental facts, this cannot be said about the general theory of relativity. But it is the general theory of relativity and gravitation which has created the Einstein myth through the fascination of the non-euclidean geometry adopted by Albert Einstein from his German landsman Bernhard Riemann.
It is the failure to quantize Einstein's gravitational field theory formulated in a Riemannian curved space-time which has led to a profound crisis in modern physics, no less profound than was the crisis of physics at the beginning of the 20th century, resolved by the special theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.
To overcome the present crisis several leading theoretical physicists have entered a maze of speculations from which there appears to be no escape: The conjectured existence of higher dimensional spaces, previously reserved by the spiritists as the seat for the ghosts of the dead, not supported by a single piece of physical evidence, with all physics laboratories still three-dimensional.
If the observed superluminal quantum correlations are disturbed by turbulent fluctuations of the ze-ro point vacuum energy field, with the turbulent energy spectrum assumed to obey the universal Kol-mogoroff law, a length is derived above which the correlations are conjectured to break. A directional dependence of this length would establish a preferred reference system at rest with the zero point ener-gy. Assuming that the degree of turbulence is given by the small anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation, a length of ~60 km is derived above which the correlations would break.
Abstract. Considering the theory of relativity there come forth measurable supplement limbs of the Doppler effect which are closely connected with Einstein's dilatation of time. In the problem at hand the basic element is not the Special Theory of Relativity but, according to the existence of fields of gravitation, it is the General Theory of Relativity. The considerations which are competent for the Doppler-effect are transferred logically to clocks on the satellite and on the earth, the motion of which is compared. The measuring of the divergence of the motion of the clock and thus the measuring of the time dilatation is made possible through comparison of two quartz-clocks (so-called atomic clocks) with molecule resonance lines on the artificial satellite and on the surface of the earth. Thereby it shows that the clock on the artificial satellite compared with a clock placed on the surface of the earth, in the course of a year will lose several thousandths of a second, that is, a measurable amount.
Zusammenfassung. Bei Berücksichtigung der Relativitätstheorie treten messbare Zusatzglieder zum Doppler-Effekt auf, die in unmittelbarem Zusammenhang mit der einsteinischen Zeitdilatation stehen. Beim vorliegenden Problem darf jedoch nicht die spezielle Relativitätstheorie, sondern muss entsprechend dem Vorhandensein von Gravitationsfeldern die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie zugrunde gelegt werden. Die Überlegungen, die für den Doppler-Effekt massgebend sind, übertragen sich dabei sinngemäss auf Uhren auf dem Satelliten und auf der Erde, deren Gang verglichen wird. Die Messung der Abweichung des Uhrenganges und damit die Messung der Zeitdilatation wird ermöglicht durch Vergleich zweier mit Molekülresonanzlinien gesteuerter Quarzuhren (sog. Atomuhren) auf dem künstlichen Satelliten und auf der Erdoberfläche. Es zeigt sich dabei, dass die auf einem künstlichen Satelliten befindliche Uhr gegenüber einer auf der Erdoberfläche aufgestellten im Laufe eines Jahres nm einige tausendstel Sekunden und damit um einen messbaren Betrag nachgeht.
M. Suhail Zubairy
Marlan O. Scully
New (Oct., 2003) splendid article of world-wide known physicists - optometrists about nature of light - "The Concept of the Photon - Revisited".