Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, July 18, 2008
GALACTIC EVOLUTION
Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

BIRTH OF THE SUBSTANCE

Kinds of the physical substance

Aether is the base matter of the Universe. Indeed, there is nothing in the universe except of aether. The elementary particles consist of amers, the aether corpuslces. The atoms consist of elementary particles. The molecules consist of atoms. All physical bodies consist of molecules. This hierarchy is clear and is transparent. However there is also the special phase states of the material in the Space. Excluding plasma, the ionized form of gas and hypothetical neutronic matter of pulsars, three phase states of material were known for physics till now. There are solid, liquid and gaseous phase states.

However the author has discovered new phase states of weighty material formed at hyperpressure, the supercompressed states of material. Frequent on celestial bodies, these states have great importance for astrophysics.

Therefore we will consider, how it forms.

As it is known, the atoms of substance have electronic shells. The stable isotopes have six or less electronic shells, according the quantity of periods in Mendeleyev's table of chemical elements. In usual conditions of laboratory and our life the pressure endeavoured on atoms, does not influence on its size, excluding some effects on external valent shell varying phase state of material at heating (solid, liquid, gaseous and ionized), and also on physical-chemical behaviour of the atoms.

So we count atoms as "indivisible". However already at pressure 1.5 megabars valent shell of the atom loses its strength, and the atom loses elasticity of its form that is the substance becomes liquid. This phenomenon is observed by means of planetary seismology as a liquid core of the Earth. There substance is in the special phase state, the supercompressed meta-liquid.

At pressure buildup up to 3 megabars valent shell of the atom is rumpled and decays, the atoms lose property to incorporate in molecules that it lose chemical properties. The material passes into a new phase state, the supercompressed meta-solid. It is not a solid state, which it is known to us in daily life and created by rigidity of valent shell. It is an immovability of atoms in result of hyper-pressure, when the electronic shell lying below valent shell ceases to be spherical and resists to free movement of atoms. This phase state is also observed by seismology in center of the Earth and is considered as solid core of our planet. In modern scientific mythology it is an iron core of the Earth. However it not so. The element structure of the core is equivalent to mantle basalts. The difference consists in absence of chemical bond and this material is compressed up to double density.

On it the phase supercompressed states in Earth interior are exhausted. However it is not so for more massive celestial bodies. At higher pressure internal electronic shells of atoms fall consistently, and we can observe new phase states of substance. Where they observed are? - They are observed in quasars, by means of discrete distribution of their mass - luminosity function [27].

Thus, there are six developmental quasar types, according number of the destroyed electronic shells of the atom (in detail the supercompressed states are described in [27]). The pulsars, so-called "neutron stars", the remainders of supernovae, formed by monstrous compression of center of stars perishing during explosion. This is material, all electronic shells of which are rumpled by hyper-pressure. This material is in metastable condition in pulsars because its own gravitational field is not so great to interfere nuclear clusters, the alpha-particles, protons, neutrons and electrons leaving pulsar. For many astrophysicists and nuclear physicists will be revelation that the "nuclear" matter of pulsars is already taken in the Kiev laboratory "Proton-21" [28]. Naturally, the author does not overlook other kinds of the matter, important for understanding of development of processes in the Universe. It is electromagnetic fields, netrino and "cosmic rays" that is protons and alpha-particles of high energy.

Let's talk about it below.

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