© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, July 18, 2008
Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia


Nuclear activity of stars

As it was marked above, the nuclear imaginations of a modern astrophysics have no a place in a reality. In a nature there is no рр-synthesis, there is no temperature 1.5·10 7 ЁK In недрах of the Sun and stars. Real temperature in недрах of stars in 100 times is lower.

The sun and some stars вс ё have some nuclear activity. However she(it) makes мизерную a share from general(common) power of radiation (see tab. 2). In opinion of the author, this activity is provided with property of substance in the supercompressed phase condition эмитировать cold neutrons. To this conclusion(injection) the author has come after study of a nature of a neutron, which there is not that other, as atom of hydrogen in the supercompressed condition, that is with the pressed through electronic shell(envelope).

The issue(emission) of cold neutrons from the supercompressed nucleus of a star in its(her) atmosphere results in formation(education) of deuterium and трития.

The deuterium, being a stable element, collects in solar atmosphere. Тритий also can collect, if speed of his(its) formation(education) is higher, than speed it(him) І decay(disintegration) in 3 He and consumption on nuclear explosions with reactions of synthesis of helium - 4 from isotopes of hydrogen. Main(basic) reaction is

2 D + 3 T - > 4 He + n + 17.6 MeV

The period полураспада трития 12.26 years [51]. From here it is possible to make a conclusion(injection), that at pulse, that is simultaneous consumption трития, the maximum of following concentration will be observed in 12+4 years in velocity function of his(its) accumulation.

So it also is. The cycles of solar activity repeat through such intervals(interspaces) or disappear for decades, while there are no conditions for their occurrence, that is if the speed of accumulation трития is lower than speed of his(its) decay(disintegration).

One of such minima named Дж. Эдди [52] маундеровским by a minimum having a place 1645 - 1715, was open in 1852 Й. Р. Вольфом [53, 54] and is in detail described by. Шпёрером and Е. Маундером [55].

As is known [56], this time климатологи name " small ледниковой as epoch " or " by stage Фернау " (under the name тирольского of a glacier), when global temperature has decreased almost on 1 Ё.

Proceeding from the stated above reasons and facts, the author has come to the following scheme of solar activity.

Time in 8 - 16 years at a surface метатвердого of a solar nucleus arise conditions инициации of nuclear reactions of synthesis of helium - 4 from deuterium - тритиевой of a gas mix(mixture). These conditions arise at the moment of the best issue(emission) of neutrons from метатвердого of a nucleus. In this moment near to a nucleus many spontaneously divided isotopes of heavy elements are formed creating conditions of chain nuclear reaction and the concentration трития exceeds critical value necessary for occurrence of thermonuclear explosion.

Feature of process is that the main(basic) DT-thermonuclear process is initiated низкоэнергетическими by nuclear reactions of heavier elements sated with neutrons, similarly nuclear запалу of a hydrogenous bomb. It is a really observable phase предвспышечного of increase(rising) of activity "warming up" a place of the future TD-explosion. According to calculations of the author even in center of the Sun in absence of explosions temperature does not exceed 150000 ЁK [57].

Actually there is a whole series of large thermonuclear explosions provoking each other (see a fig. 7).

For short period, much smaller period of a cycle of solar activity occurs about hundred huge explosions on 10 30 - 10 31 [J]. The total energy of these explosions usually makes value about 0.1 - 1 % of energy of radiation of the Sun. On this value varies solar constant. Acknowledgement(confirmation) it is the decrease(reduction) инсоляции on value close to 1 % in маундеровский the period of absence of solar activity.

Each such explosion leaves after itself an impact cavity of rarefaction passing in a steady whirlwind of ionized gas. When these whirlwinds leave on a surface of the Sun, we notice пбры пятен - outputs(exits) on a surface central трубок of whirlwinds.

Knowing rotation rate of the Sun, it is easy to calculate time of rise(ascent) of these whirlwinds for a surface. It makes 2 - 12 years depending on power of the caused explosion.

Fig. 7. "Tile" sequences of solar cycles.
( 1 - acceleration метатвердого of a nucleus; 2 - total energy of DT-nuclear explosions, 3 - number Вольфа of the given cycle, 4 - total number Вольфа, 5 - deep magnetic storms by the slow beginning, 6 - surface magnetic storms with the sharp beginning, 7 - latitude drift пятен)

The rotation of gaseous masses of solar atmosphere changes a direction of a up-floating of whirlwinds, pressing them to solar equator. The most high-power whirlwinds mount faster and emerge far from equators, up to 40 Ё Latitudes. Smaller - in lower latitudes and later on some years. It is a really observable picture (see fig. 8).

Fig. 8. The scheme of rise(ascent) of whirlwinds from недр of the Sun.
( For large whirlwinds with high speed of rise(ascent) V a corner(angle) of deviation(rejection) to equator under action of force of rotation F c Is small. For small whirlwinds with low speed of rise(ascent) v the drift to equator is great.)

Thus, the readout of a cycle of solar activity begins on decay of the previous cycle, when in center of the Sun occurs залп of thermonuclear explosions. Only in some years on a surface of the Sun occur of a spot of this cycle. A spot of last whirlwinds of the previous cycle can not reach yet a surface. So there is an imposing(superposition) of cycles against each other by peculiar tile. It is an explanation of "butterflies" on the diagram of distribution пятен on a latitude and time (see fig. 9).

Fig. 9. Distribution of sun-spots on a latitude and time.

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