Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, July 18, 2008
GALACTIC EVOLUTION
Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

 

The Eternal and Infinite Universe

"The Universe is unified, infinite, motionless...
It cannot decrease or increase, as it is infinite...

Giordano Bruno

The real age of the Universe is eternity. Its real size is infinity. It follows not only from logic, but also from today's astronomical observations and particular analysis.

In 2003 by the author [25], critically revised the data about redshifts of 434 supernovae type Ia, has established, that

The quanta of electromagnetic waves of optical band lose its energy exponentially on distances billions light years scale, and Hubble constant is a factor of this loss.

It is the direct proof of existence of aether, the physical environment, the carrier of electromagnetic waves. Also it is proof of isotropy and stady-state of the Universe within many billions light years.

One more direct indicator of aether existence is the presence of intrinsic redshift of massive celestial bodies and sidereal clusters discovered mostly due to activities of alive classic of astrophysics Dr. Arp [16].

The aether is undestroyable and uncreatable base matter of the Universe, and all objects in it are the form of aether motion. The elementary particles consist of aether, atoms consist of elementary particles, all material bodies consist of atoms and molecules, so all material bodies consist of aether. Physical fields are oscillations of aether and distribution of physical forces and other physical values in it. As there is not a marine wave without water and sea, so there is not physical waves and fields without their carrier, the aether. The celestial bodies and their systems arise and perish in the Universe decaying on elementary particles. Then it arise again and perish again. And so it occurs eternally.

At a generalizing sight on process of origin, life and destruction of something in the Universe, it is possible to divide this process on following characteristic phases:

The splitting into these phases allows to present the development of various objects and systems easily (see tab. 1).

And, in the Universe we observe hierarchical order, in which the systems, more complex objects of the Universe consist of simple objects. It is natural, that the objects of a different hierarchical levels have various time of life. As the object of higher level consists of objects of lowest levels (as a rule, high level object is a system of lower level objects). The time of its formation is more for the orders, than time of life of objects of the subordinated level.

Thus, the life time of the observable Universe is the longest. And even, if the universes of stars and galaxies is not the true Universe, but only one of its object, the life time of this object in present, steady-state phase is so great, that the Universe, which we imagine above on observable universe in the hierarchical plan, is so great and so inaccessible to observations that it is not a subject of astrophysics.

Table 1. Phases of development of objects of the Universe

Object

Potential phase

t h e   p o i n t   o f   b i r t h

Phase of development

Steady-state phase

Phase of degradation

t h e   f a t a l   p o i n t

Planet

Comets, microcomets, interstellar dust and gas

Jovian type planet during active accretion

Jovian type planet during small accretion

Terrestrial type planet

Star of the population II

Intergalactic gas

The red giant

Low-metal star of the Main Sequence

Light-blue subdwarf

Star of the population I

Jovian type planet during accretion

High-metal star during accretion

Metal star of MS

White dwarf

Globular cluster

Stars of the population II (star of the first generation)

Globular cluster (GC) accreting in Giant Molecular Cloud

GC in clean space

GC decaying in galactic gravitational field

Galaxy

Globular Cluster

Elliptical galaxy

Spiral galaxy

Active and radio galaxy

QSO, quasar

Massive star, supercompressed kerns of massive bodies

Free quasars

Host-quasar of a spiral galaxy

Host-quasar of active galaxy (radio galaxy)

 

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