Published according to special permit of professor Friedwardt Winterberg

THE PLANCK AETHER HYPOTHESIS

CONTENTS

**I. The Case for an Aether**

- The Standard Model
- The Strengths of the Coupling Constants
- The Problem of the Zero-Point Vacuum Energy
- The Problem of Quantum Gravity
- Past and Recent Attempts to Formulate a TOE (Theory of Everything)
- The Case for an Aether

II. Derivation of Quantum Mechanics from the Planck Aether Hypothesis

- Boltzmann Equation for the Planck Aether
- Quantum Mechanics of the Densely Packed Assembly of Positive and Negative Planck Mass Particles
- Derivation of the Schrodinger Equation for the Planck Masses by a Variational Principle

**III. Approximate Solutions of the Quantized Field Equation for the Planck Aether**

- Hartree and the Hartree-Fock Approximation
- Hydrodynamic Formulation
- Waves and Vortices in the Hartree-Approximation
- Waves and Vortices in the Hartree-Fock Approximation
- Inclusion of the Quantum Potential
- Rotons
- Origin of Charge

**IV. Formation of the Vortex Lattice and the Unification of
Maxwell's and Einstein's Equations**

- Formation of the Vortex Lattice
- Electromagnetic and Gravitational Waves
- Electromagnetic and Gravitational Interaction

**V. DiracSpinors**

- Correspondence Principle Treatment
- Wave Mechanical Treatment
- Spinor Rotons
- Neutrino Oscillations
- Spin Statistics Theorem

**VI. Quark-Lepton Symmetries and the Higgs Field**

- Fractional Charges
- Fractionally Charged Quarks
- The Origin of the Higgs Field
- Higher Families
- Parity and CP Violation

**VII. Lorentz Invariance**

- Einstein-Hopf Friction Force
- Dynamic Interpretation of Lorentz Invariance
- Derivation of the Lorentz Transformations
- Synchronization by Slow Clock Transport
- General Relativity
- Further Remarks about Lorentz Invariance and General Relativity

**VIII. Equivalence and Gauge Principles**

- Origin of Gravitational Mass
- Origin of Inertial Mass and Principle of Equivalence
- Interpretation of Gauge Invariance
- Analogies Between Einstein-Gravity and Non—Abelian Gauge Field Theories
- Asymptotic Behavior

**IX. Astrophysical and Cosmological Problems**

- Nonbaryonic Cold Dark Matter
- Rotation Curves of Disc Galaxies and the Roton Cold Dark Matter Conjecture
- Black Hole Entropy
- The Entropy of the Universe
- The Sum of All Charges Equal Zero Theorem
- Beyond the Visible Universe
- Is there a Shadow Matter?

**X. Quantum Mechanical Nonlocality and the Planck Aether Hypothesis**

- Action at a Distance
- The Sagnac- and Aharonov-Bohm Effect
- Phase Entanglement
- Wave Function Collapse

**XI. Finitistic Formulation**

- XI. 1 Physical and Mathematical Continuum
- The Continuum and the Divergence Problems of Relativistic Quantum Field Theories
- Finite Difference Operators
- Finitistic Field Equation
- Lagrange Formalism
- Maximum Energy and Momentum

**XII. Breaking of the Quantum Correlations**

- Number of Fundamental Constants
- Past Attempts
- Turbulent Fluctuations of the Planck Aether

References

Epilog: 20th Century Clouds of Physics and Einstein Dammerung Translation of a Letter by Helsenberg

A. Appendix

- Conventions, Abbreviations and Symbols
- About the Author
- The Value of Sommerfeld's Finestructure Constant as a Consequence of the Planck-Aether Hypothesis
- Planck Mass Rotons as Cold Dark Matter and Quintessence
- A.5 Proper names
- Index