Felix Gorbatsewich - The Ether and Universe

4. Ether consists of two, opposite in charge, particles

The principle of matter separation into opposites is universal. All existing consists of two opposite elements. This philosophical thesis completely concerns ether. With this principle in mind it should be expected that a vacuum, namely the ethereal medium consists of two kinds of particles, charged positively and negatively. It is most probable, that these particles are of an electromagnetic nature. They are attracted to each other with great force. Let us try to construct the model of the ethereal medium, which would meet the phenomenon of a transverse nature when light and electromagnetic waves propagate. A string (filament) stretched in free space along a straight line can be an initial mechanical model for this purpose. The vibration theory for such strings is sufficiently well developed [53]. A flexible string can be presented as a set of unit masses, bound together themselves by rigid links. The rigidity of links is in their unchangeable, constant length. Hinges permitting a free motion of masses and links relative to each other, Fig. 4, connect the links and masses.

Fig. 4. A flexible string consisting of masses, rigid links and hinges.

If a displacement is given to the initial point of the string, the perturbation will begin to propagate along the string. The displacement vector of this perturbation will be perpendicular to the line of string extension, Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Waves of a flexible string in free space.

It is necessary to note, that such a string in free space can transmit only waves with a displacement in the direction across the line, along which it is stretched. The string cannot transmit oscillations of any other kind.

Note that as early as 1736 Johann Bernoulli Jr. published a work where he compared the waves propagating in the ether with lateral vibrations of a cord in tension which “being slightly pulled aside and then released makes lateral vibrations normal to the cord direction” [8].

If we connect a number of single strings together by transverse rigid links, that hingedly also connect the masses, it is possible to get a plane structure or a lattice consisting of masses and rigid links, Fig. 6.

A plane lattice, as well as the line, Fig. 4, arranged in the manner described, will be capable to transmit only shear waves, Fig. 7.

The transition from the plane lattice to a spatial or volumetric (three-dimensional) one is easy to accomplish by adding the third coordinate to the lattice, Fig. 6, and locating the same rigid links, hinges and masses along this coordinate. Let us pay attention to the fact that in a spatial lattice each mass (particle) contacts six other particles through rigid links. It is quite obvious that a spatial lattice consisting of the mentioned elements preserves an ability to transmit only shear waves. The direction of the displacement vector of these waves can be arbitrary in a spatial lattice.

Fig. 6. A plane lattice consisting of unit masses, rigid links and hinges.

Now it is necessary to find a mechanism or some force, which would replace rigid links, retaining the elements of the spatial lattice together. In our opinion, an attractive force of particles of two opposite kinds, situated in a chess order in the points of a regular lattice could be such a force. Conventionally, they can be certain fundamental particles with a positive and negative charges, Fig. 8.

Fig. 7. A plane lattice transmitting shear waves.

In the figure, particles of two kinds, positive and negative, are represented as geometrically identical spheres tightly contacting each other. As will be shown below, the nature of their charges is electrical. It is doubtless, that for a spatial lattice formation, these fundamental particles should be attracted to each other with a great force.

The model consisting of particles of two kinds, opposite in sign that are attracted with a great force, explains many of the ethereal medium's properties. For example, it logically explains the exclusive homogeneity of vacuum, correctly noticed by J.C. Maxwell [13]. Really, a major attractive force among the particles will make a particle to come nearer to an analogue of an opposite kind. A process of attractive interaction and compensation of particles charges of an opposite kind will last till each particle of a particular sign is enclosed by six particles of the opposite sign. Thus, the structure of the ethereal medium will be strictly ranked and arranged as a regular spatial lattice. Dislocations, originating in free ether for some reasons, will propagate from the place of their origin at the velocity of light C. As it was already shown above by the example of the most ancient Earth’s rocks and meteorites [34], fundamental particles (electrons on its orbits et al.) can move through the ethereal medium extremely long and completely without friction. Accordingly, particles of this medium themselves can move relative to each other also without friction.

Fig. 8. The structure of the ethereal medium consisting of particles of two kinds, opposite in charge (projection to a plane).

The most visual idea of the ethereal perturbed medium is given by a magnetic field around a conductor with current or in the neighbourhood of a permanent magnet. Usually, a visualization of magnetic force lines is carried out with iron dust, Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. Force lines of a magnetic field of circular current, traced through an iron dust.

The representation of a magnetic field as a shear strain of the ethereal medium is most logical. It eliminates a great number of contradictions. It is strictly proved that magnetic force lines are always close-mouthed. Equipotential lines of elastic shear strains are always close-mouthed too [54]. The so-called space continuity condition in this case is met. It should be supposed, that the space continuity condition is valid for the ethereal medium too. At the same time the concept explaining the nature of a magnetic field by the presence of a vortex motion (for example, some particles) along ring or other close-mouthed trajectories, requires a resolution of several contradictions.

First, an existence of unit material carriers of a magnetic field, which would be capable to move only along close-mouthed trajectories, should be assumed. However, individual carriers of a magnetic field, for example, Dirac monopole, have not been detected experimentally [25].

Second, individual field carriers, naturally, can move not only along close-mouthed trajectories. If such carriers of a magnetic field existed, they could accumulate on poles, similarly to electrical charges and were of a static nature. In such a case, they could easily be detected by experimental methods.

Third, in a vortical formation (population of enclosed into each other particles moving along close-mouthed trajectories of medium particles) a movement, depending on the distance to the centre of rotation should happen with different velocity. The velocity of particle movement is lower at the vortex periphery it rises in the direction to the centre. However by observations of the propagation of a magnetic component of radio waves with different frequency in an interplanetary space, it was determined that its velocity is close to a constant, namely to the velocity of light propagation C [44].

From the mechanics of moving media it is also known, that a vortex cannot be formed from particles moving with identical velocity, as for each of the rings, enclosed in the vortex, the laws of equality of moments of momentum and continuity of medium should be observed. Besides, it is extremely difficult to imagine and mathematically model closed streams of such particles without formation of local vortexes, instabilities, different shapes of laminar, turbulent and other kinds of motion. As is known, just the instability of motion is typically of streams of actual fluids, including especially superfluid ones.

It would be possible to conceive magnetic monopoles as waves moving around a conductor with current. However in this case, too, a contradiction arises: only the light velocity C is the allowed velocity of waves propagation in ether, and it is close, as is known, to a constant. Thus, a magnetic wave, which circulates around a conductor with current with a different, depending on the distance to the conductor, velocity cannot exist around the conductor.

An exposition of the magnetic field near a permanent magnet by a static shear, torsional strain of the ethereal medium is much closer to the nature of observable phenomenon. Thus, a model of vacuum composed of geometrically equal particles with opposite charges represents a continuous medium, in which only shear, torsional strains and shear, torsional waves are possible. The mathematical concept of a similar medium was developed as early as the century before last.