© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, July 18, 2008
To light memory of my daughter Анастасии I devote


Structure and generations квазаров

Not always life of a star terminates by explosion supernew. In case of failure in conditions inducing nuclear explosion of a star, she(it) comes to a condition of transition of substance in the supercompressed condition of a following phase condition.

The special supercompressed condition of substance, when one for another сминаются electronic shells(envelopes) were above mentioned. Everyone subsequent(next) of a number(series) of the supercompressed condition is characterized smaller on unit by quantity of electronic shells(envelopes) of the atoms which have escaped at given гипердавлении. According to quantity of electronic shells(envelopes) of atom there is an appropriate quantity of the supercompressed phase condition and, accordingly, types квазаров. Квазар of the subsequent type it is essential массивней and more densely previous. The approximate weights and density квазаров are listed in table 3.

The table 3. Weights and density квазаров.

Type квазара

Density [kg/m 3 ]

Weight [kg]

0 (white dwarfs)

10 9

10 30


3*10 10

10 32


10 12

10 34


3*10 13

10 36


10 15

10 38


3*10 16

10 40

6 + pulsars

10 18

10 42 +10 29

As zero type квазаров it is possible to consider(count) the white dwarfs located in a supercompressed condition destroyed валентной of a shell,(envelope,) destroyed

As it was already marked, квазары - not exotic реликты of the past of the universe. It послезвездная stage of existence of celestial bodies. They are in each spiral galaxy, including by ours (Sgr. A W - Стрелец And Western), and the galaxies with active ядами have their set. By courageous diligence alive classics of an astrophysics of dr Арпа the question on localization квазаров is decided(solved).

Besides in our Galaxy is квазары of early types. They are observed as x-ray sources, which more than hundred are revealed already. The supervision(observation) them in optical range is inconvenient, as квазары in general, and generation 1, in particular, as well as the white dwarfs, have tiny radius. Besides the Sun and квазары are in a plane of a Galaxy and отгорожены from each other strongly absorptive light by a layer of dust.

Квазар it is possible to present as set(combination) of the enclosed each other spheres of various phase condition of substance. For гипердавлений, existing in недрах квазаров the phase transitions in вс ё more compressed condition should be characteristic in connection with destruction of more and more strong internal electronic shells(envelopes) of atoms. The simplified structure квазара and white dwarf is shown in a fig. 11.

> Fig. 11. The enclosed structure квазара.
а - low больцмановская gas atmosphere;
b, c, d... - sphere метатвердых of phase condition of substance.

For the account аккреции of substance квазар before the occurrence(appearance) of conditions of the next phase transition (destruction of the next electronic shell(envelope) of atoms) smoothly grows. Thus, between the moments of phase transitions his(its) surface has constant gravitational potential inducing fixed red displacement of radiation. At achievement of conditions of formation(education) of a new phase condition in center квазара, it(he) avalanchely passes in a new condition.

Low больцмановская the atmosphere квазаров does not hide discrete character of condition and transitions, as gravity on a surface back is proportional to radius квазара, and the characteristic altitude h больцмановской of atmosphere behaves as

h = kT/mg ~ R QSO

Where m - effective molecular weight of atmosphere.

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