The cosmological cosmogonic nebular hypothesis

Nikolay NOSKOV
Translated from Russian by Jury SARYCHEV

The cosmology is based on observation and analysis of space.

Cosmogony science about origin both development of space bodies and systems.

Nebular concerning of cosmic dust.

In 1877 the English astronomer Ebny [1] has found a way of definition of rotation rate of stars, having offered to apply for this purpose Doppler effect. However only in 1928 (in 51 years!) two astronomers (O. Struve [2], USA and G. Shain [3], Russia) have decided this problem practically.

After inspecting by method Ebni Struve Shain rotation of set of stars, has appeared, that the speeds of their rotation are connected to the spectral class. The massive stars, rotate faster then yellow and red dwarfs. Moreover all basic characteristics such as spectral class, mass, surface temperature and luminosity are vary in main sequence of stars continuously and smoothly, that cannot be told about rotation rate. For stars of the class T it sharply decreases. Near to the spectral class F5 the rotation rate decreases by a jump from 100...150 km/s (speed of a surface) up to 0...50 km/s. The dwarfs of spectral classes G, K, M practically are not rotated at all.

This fact has resulted in a conclusion that the stars from massive develop to the dwarfs. Only at a phase of achievement by them of the class F5 they have planetary systems, which one at decreasing mass of a star on 0,001 only pick up from it about 98% of a torque somehow during formation.

The conclusion based on observation, call in question all hypotheses, expressed up to that time. Nebular hypothesis of Cant, Laplace, Fay, Ligonde, Smith, Waitseker, Fisenkov and other is unsound so far as in the beginning only the star is formed from a cosmic dust cloud without a planetary system. Catastrophic hypothesis of Braun, Arrenius, Chemberlen, Multon, Jins and other is unsound as catastrophe is rather infrequent phenomenon in space, though the above-stated fact of an alteration of speed of rotation of a star is regular and mandatory phenomenon concerning to stellar magnitude. Tidal or rotatory instability hypothesis of Darvin, Hoil and other is founded on release of matter by a star. This hypothesis is unsound so far as large-scale and hot stars, rotating with high speeds (more 500 km/s) display stability. But stars of class F5 may sharply lose speed of rotation without visible reason and almost without change of mass.

The explorers have begun persistently to search the physical mechanism approaches to a solution of a problem of formation of planetary systems. At first Swedish astronomer Alven [4] has stated idea that the star can transmit the rotary moment to clots of matter on orbits through a magnetic field.

His idea was advanced by Hoil [5]. The calculations of Hoil have shown that at formation of stars after transmission by them of a part of the rotary moment to interstellar environment, the speed of their rotation is very high and corresponds to rotation rate of the hottest and massive stars. Further he has calculated that at mass of protostar equal solar and at its radius superior solar in 40 times, the centrifugal force on equator will counterbalance an attraction force. There a status of instability comes and the matter of a star is separated from it, forming the disk. In an arising star it is possible to expect availability of a general magnetic field. As a result of existence of magnetic connection between the separated matter and star (because of a difference of angular rate) there is a braking of rotation of a star.

In a hypothesis of Hoil there are some guesses and suppositions not having explanations. Why stars have a magnetic field? How the stars lose mass before achievement by them size of the class F5? How the formed disk is divided into separate rings, from which one the planets will subsequently be derived, etc. His hypothesis does not explain also, how there is a sorting of matter on an elemental composition in planets.

In 1962 French astrophysicist Shatsman [6] has assumed, that if the stars have the magnetic field, it stipulates a capability of loss of the rotary moment without formation of planets. Thus he indicates the following observation fact: the sun permanently "goes off" flows of hot ionized gas from areas called as sun-spots with speeds of hundreds and thousand km/s. Now these flows are small, but earlier could be in another way. The charged (ionized) flow of matter in consequence of coupling with a magnetic field of a star besides radial velocity gains circumferential velocity too since with increase of distance from a star "rays" of a magnetic field have the same angular rate with it, but circumferential speed increases. There comes the moment, when the field is feeble so (under the law of return squares), that can not more retain matter, and it is torn off and flys away into space. Thus, the stars, returning the rotary moment to ejected matter, reduce speed of rotation.

We see that in work of Shatsman the approach to explanation of braking of a stellar rotation and mechanism of loss by them of mass was outlined brand new. He does not correlate braking of rotation neither with formation of the disk, nor with existence (beforehand) of certain space-dust of a cloud.

Researcher Su Shu-Huang [7] and Hayashy [8] supported Shatsman. In 1965 Su Shu-Huang has made calculations on the mechanism of Shatsman for a solar System and has shown that the Sun has lost a main part of the rotary moment even before formation of a planetary system. He concludes, what exactly in that moment, when the Sun was protostar (star of type T), it had powerful active areas, like present dark spots, whence the magnetized plasma was rejected. And only at last phase of this process the ejected matter starts to shape the space-dust disks, from which one the planets will subsequently be formed.

Hayashy has advanced the theory of evolution of protostars, from which one the very important conclusion follows: the powerful convection motions cover only stars with mass less than 1,5 masses of the Sun, to which one Hoil attributed existence of the fixed magnetic field.

Alwen, Hoil, Shatsman, Su Shu-Huang and Hayashy with the help of an observation astronomy and astrophysics have created a framework of a cosmogonic hypothesis, from which one the actual features of processes of formation of stars and near them planetary systems are already visible. It is necessary only to explain a some of the observable facts, such as availability for stars of a magnetic field, mechanism of ejection of matter from a star, distribution of matter in planets about an elemental composition etc.

Matter of a star is plasma, i.e. "gas consisting from positively and negatively charged particles in such proportions, at which one the total charge is equal to zero" (Frank Kamenetsky [9]). Already from this definition it is completely clear, that the plasma should easily conduct a current through itself, can be controlled by a magnetic field, but itself to create neither that, nor other can not. Thus, the plasma physics prohibits to stars to have a magnetic field. However now it is precisely known, that not only star (and Sun) has a magnetic field, but also planets (in particular, Earth).

The solution of this phenomenon is in physics of atom. Pressure arises at formation of a celestial body (star or the planets) inside it as a result of gravitation. This pressure overcome electrical repulsion of electrons on external layers of atoms and ions and press down them so closely to each other, that they start to participate in compensation of a charge of adjacent nuclei. There is a reallocation of charges: a part of electrons becoming waste in structure of electronic shells. These electrons move to surface of body and now participate in compensation of a common positive charge of its internal area. There they begin to rotate together with body (star or a planet) and are differentiated in separate zones of flows on speeds with the help of Ampere forces.

On Jupiter and Saturn the heavy layers of atmospheres reach their electronic shells, therefore they are colored and the inexplicable phenomenon is watched, exotic on the first view. On different zones the motion of high layers of atmospheres happens with different speeds, and there are precise boundaries of zones.

The existence of electronic shells near massive cosmic bodies (including, the Earth) results in several fundamental consequences, which one confirm by an observation astronomy, and play a key role in development of stars and planetary systems. What is their essence of?

At first, the moving electronic shells of space bodies create a magnetic field. But it is no "fixed" vertically directed field, which Alven, Hoil, Shatsman and Su Chu-Huang wrote about. It is a field, directed from one pole of a star or planet to other, creates the ideal magnetic trap for plasma, what our physicists, studying thermonuclear fusion, dream of. It suppresses plasma of a star and prevents it from scattering under operation of temperatures and convection flows. It is possible to explain existence of magnetic fields near planets only by presence of electronic shells on them.

Secondly, the separation of electronic shells, in dependence of speed of shells, attenuate attraction of electrons on boundaries of zones and as a corollary lead to appearance of instability of flows and their turbulence. Flows, which one are near to equator have a maximum differential velocity (so also turbulence). There are greatest vortexes there. A vortex from electrons is electromagnet, the force lines of which one are directed along an axis of a vortex, i.e. perpendicularly to surfaces of a star or planet. There are so-called dark spots on the Sun, and a red spot on Jove. And it is just that "fixed" upright directional magnetic field, about which one Alven, Hoil and other researchers wrote.

The electronic vortex by the magnetic field creates a hole in the magnetic trap of a star, and the flows of matters are thrown out in this hole, having acquired speed either because of temperature or because of convection flows.

As we already know from works of Hayashy, the convection flows arise at stars, the dimension of which is equal or less than 1,5 mass of the Sun. Before the leakage of matter from a star happens only because of temperature motions and consequently slowly. However mechanism of slowing-down of a stellar rotation and loss by them of mass is precisely tracked here.

In the book "Our Sun" [10] (1963) Mezel describes convection flows on the Sun. "The convection fluxes divide all surface of the Sun into separate areas grains by the size in a diameter approximately some hundred of kilometers, in which one the up-and-down fluxes take place. The not plasma is rising up to surface and cold one is sinking into depth. The speed of rising plasma reaches 150 km/s and more, and it takes off highly above a surface, forming cone-shaped fountains pixels. Near dark spots the pixels exhibit the greatest activity, forming protuberances" (is selected by me N.N.).

When the Sun had dimension of the class F5 (now it has class G), the power of electronic vortexes in its shell and speed of convection flows had maximum value. Energy of motions of ejecting plasma was enough for throw out it on orbits, where planets were formed. The mechanism of separation of matter on an elemental composition becomes clear by such way of transfer of matter. At first, it is Maxwell's velocity distribution for all spectrum of mass of atoms, ions and particles, at which one the spike of distribution falls in area of Saturn and Jove, and the ratio of light and heavy atoms varies how it is watched. Secondly, the magnetic field of electronic vortexes coupled with ejecting plasma, acts on it as the separator, a little distorting a picture of Maxwell's distribution.

We need to recollect now, that the thrown out matter will be delayed on steady quantized orbits only, where will form planets. Remaining is business of a mechanics.


The literature:

  1. Ebny. A way of definition of rotation rate of stars by spectrographic observations with the help of Doppler effect. England, 1877. In: I.S. Shklovsky "The Universe, life, reason". Science, M., 1976, page 123.
  2. O.L. Struve. Definition of rotation rate of stars with the help of Doppler effect. USA, 1928. In: I.S. Shklovsky "The Universe, life, reason". Science, M., 1976, page 123.
  3. G.A. Shain. Definition of rotation rate of stars with the help of Doppler effect. Russia, 1928. In: I.S. Shklovsky "The Universe, life, reason". Science, M., 1976, page 123.
  4. H. Alven. The mechanism of transfer of a torque from a star to planets with the help of a magnetic field. Sweden, 1950. In: I.S. Shklovsky "The Universe, life, reason". Science, M., 1976, page 124.
  5. F. Hoil. A cosmogonic hypothesis. England, 1958. In: I.S. Shklovsky "The Universe, life, reason". Science, M., 1976, page 125.
  6. E. Shatsman. The mechanism of loss of the rotary moment by stars. Francium, 1962. In: I.S. Shklovsky "The Universe, life, reason". Science, M., 1976, page 128.
  7. Su Shu-Huang. The mechanism of Shatsman for explanation of abnormal distribution of the rotary moment in a solar System. 1965. In: I.S. Shklovsky "The Universe, life, reason". Science, M., 1976, page 129.
  8. Hayashy. The theory of evolution of protostars. Japan. In: I.S. Shklovsky "The Universe, life, reason". Science, M., 1976, page 130.
  9. D.A. Frank-Kamenetsky. Plasma the fourth status of matter. Atomizdat, M., 1975.
  10. D.H. Menzel. Our Sun. GIFML, M., 1963.

Is published earlier:

"Science of Kazakhstan", 19...20, 1999.