Felix Gorbatsewich - The Ether and Universe

11. Moving charges and Galileo principle

Phenomena arising when electrically charged physical bodies move in the ether medium are more complicated than those that are typical of uncharged bodies or an immobile charge. In the undisturbed ether, particle charges balance each other and such ether manifests itself as electrically- and magnetically neutral. A single immobile charge sets up an electrical field around itself which, in fact, is a result of the ether medium deformation. A moving charge also establishes an electrical field, but as it moves, a magnetic field is set up as well. A moving charge can be detected only with another charge (magnet). Thus, it turns out that a motionless (in relation to the ether) charge and a charge that is moving straight and uniformly are not equivalent. On the other hand, the charge that is moving strait and uniformly neither emits nor loses energy. At the same time its energy is less than that of the immobile charge, since part of the energy was spent on establishing the magnet field in the surrounding ether medium at the instant of transition from rest to movement.

Let us explain this phenomenon in terms of an example. Assume the availability of two charges known to be identical and immobile. They can be located at such a great distance from each other that their fields (the ether medium deformations) will not virtually interact. Let us leave one charge immobile in relation to the ether medium and start moving the other. To set an immobile charge in motion it must be given acceleration. The acceleration of the charge will establish an alternating magnetic field around the charge route. Part of this field energy will be spent on electromagnetic radiation as electromagnetic waves. This part of the energy will be radiated into the infinity and will not come back to the charge as EMF of self-induction if the charge stops its movement. The other part of the charge energy will be spent on establishing a constant magnetic field (if the charge moves with a constant velocity). This part of energy will be the energy of deformation of the ether surrounding the charge. During uniform strait movement the magnetic field (or the ether deformation) will preserve a constant value. Comparing the state of the two charges - motionless and moving at this moment, note that the energy (electric potential) of the moving charge is less than that of the motionless one. There is no magnetic field around the motionless charge, but it is present around the moving charge. The moving charge spent part of the energy in radiating electromagnetic waves as it accelerated from the stationary state.

As follows from the above, the state and energy of the immovable (in relation to the ether medium) and moving charges are greatly different. The motionless charge is surrounded by an electrical field, the moving charge - by an electrical and magnet fields. The energy and electrical potential of the moving charge are less than those of the motionless charge.

Compare the differences in the state of motionless and moving charges with the state of uncharged motionless and moving physical bodies. In accordance with the quite objective Galileo principle, the behaviour of an electrically neutral physical body that is in the strait uniform motion is indistinguishable from that of the body that is at rest in relation to the Earth. Thus, one can state that there are certain differences between the states of electrically neutral and charged physical bodies at rest and in motion. Due to the presence of the ether medium Galileo principle of relativity cannot be applied to immovable and moving in relation to the ether charged bodies.

There are a lot of works dedicated to the theory of fields around moving charges. For instance, O. Heaviside [74] received a solution showing that the electrical vector created by a moving point charge is radial everywhere. Magnetic lines of force created by a moving point charge are circles whose centres are located along the line of movement. Later G.F.C. Searle solved the problem on distribution of a charge over a moving sphere [75]. The moving sphere that establishes the same field as a moving point charge is not a sphere but a compressed spheroid which polar axis is located in the motion direction. Then U.B. Morton showed [76] that in the case with a moving electrified sphere, the surface density does not change as the sphere moves, but the force lines no longer leave the surface at the right angle.

The energy of the field surrounding a charged sphere was demonstrated to be greater when the sphere moves than when it is at rest, since along with the electric field around the sphere, a magnetic field arises as well. Accordingly, the work that should be done to bring the sphere to a given velocity is greater when the sphere is charged than when it is uncharged. The effective mass of the sphere increases due to the charge presence. According to the authors, the reason for this is self-induction of the convection current that is generated when the charge starts moving. Thus, the well-known works also corroborate inefficiency of Galileo principle for charged bodies.

The inapplicability of Galileo principle for moving charged bodies and those at rest offers an explanation to the fact that A. Einstein did not find a place for the ether in STR. The recognition of the ether medium presence immediately breaks the equivalence principle for independent inertial systems that provides a basis for STR.