The concepts of space, time and matter underlie scientific notions of the universe. The most acknowledged by physicists now, the special theory of relativity (STR) postulates the principle of the unity of space and time categories. At the same time, the STR negates the existence of special matter - ether or vacuum, in which, as is known, all kinds of electromagnetic waves propagate. An assumption of the postulates of both the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity (GTR) has not allowed one to get a non-contradictory physical model, which could unite the observed phenomena in the field of electromagnetism, gravitation, inertia etc. . Such a situation has existed already for more than 90 years and in the opinion of many eminent scientists (W. Ritz, A. Poincare, H. Rechenbach, V.F. Mitkevich, N.P. Kasterin, €.Š. Timiryazev, L. Brillouin et al.) it demonstrates a steep decline in our notions of the universe fundamentals. In our opinion, the development of a vacuum (the ethereal medium) physical model that is consistent with the known phenomena arising during the propagation of light and electromagnetic waves and explains the nature of inertia and gravitation, will allow one to correct the existing situation.
Newton, in his time, represented light as a stream of corpuscles, i.e. particles propagating rectilinearly. When meeting an obstacle (a mirror) such corpuscles recoiled just like balls recoiling from a solid surface. C. Huygens has developed the wave theory of light. In "Treatise of light" he supposes that light propagates as an elastic impulse in a special medium - ether filling all the space. Works of A. Fresnel have shown definitely, that light is of a wave nature. Experiments of H. Hertz have allowed one to confirm J.C. Maxwell's guess of the electromagnetic nature of light waves.
At the same time, the electromagnetic wave theory of light is not free from inconsistencies. For example, it is precisely known that the displacements in such a wave happen in a direction, transversal to the direction of propagation. However, such a type of displacements is typical only of solid bodies. Examining a very high speed and very low attenuation during propagation of light from rather far galaxies, we come to conclusion, that ether, as a bearer of an electromagnetic wave, is close in properties to an absolutely solid body with very high elasticity. At the same time, ether can penetrate physical bodies without any friction, and all these bodies, including solid ones, can move completely freely in ether.
Thus, a logically consistent and physically justified theory of ether (vacuum) has not been developed so far. At the same time, a rejection of the presence of ether means a rejection of a light-bearing medium supplying us with life-giving energy from the sun. In everyday life, each of us uses radio and TV sets, receiving through ether, surrounding the Earth or satellits a useful signal from the near-earth space. It is precisely the wave equations, obtained on the assumption of the presence of a medium with certain and known properties that allow one to calculate trajectories of electromagnetic waves propagation exactly.
If we accept the corpuscular theory directly then it is necessary to admit that the sun, radiating photons in a wide range of energies, would send them to us with different velocities. However, as is well known, their velocity of propagation is constant and is equal to C = 2,9979246108 m/s . A constancy of the waves propagation velocity is characteristic only of homogeneous media.
Thus, the wave theory of light faces less logic inconsistencies, than the corpuscular one. However, the wave theory of light requires necessarily a medium - carrier of waves. This imperceptible medium termed, ether (the ethereal medium, vacuum) in literature has sharply defined electromagnetic properties . However, a consistent physical model of vacuum has not been constructed so far. The present work offers such a model, which, from our point of view, is logically consistent and meets the known experimental observations physically adequately.